1. Newfoundland/Labrador
  2. According to most sources Lumbini, in present-day Nepal, 
  3. A thousand of something, especially a thousand years (and no, not the next Olympics in Santiago!)
  4. In 1844 President James Polk's 1844 Democratic party,  risking war with Britain, claimed the whole of Oregon territory from the northern California boundary northward to the southern boundary of Alaska, which was at a latitude of 54.40.
  5. Study of remedies